INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its high prevalence is related to an elevated prevalence of classic risk factors for CVD in CKD and, as the renal as function declines, the appearance of CKD-related risk factors. The association between those risk factors challenge us to improve the knowledge of the pathophysiology of CKD-related CVD, and raise the need of developing new diagnostic tools for risk assessment and therapeutic strategies for this new clinical condition.
DISCUSSION: The presence of factors that increase CVD risk in CKD patients has been extensively studied recently. Lipid disorders, mineral metabolism disorders, activation of the renin angiotensin system, anemia, malnutrition, oxidative stress, inflammation, hyperhomocysteinemia, uremic toxicity and coagulation disorders have all been analyzed in different studies. Endothelial dysfunction appears to be a central point in those disorders and had been the focus of a number of analysis, and can be observed early in the progression of kidney disease. The emphasis on the management of traditional risk factors and the aggresive control of CKD-related risk factors should be a priority of the treatment of CVD in CKD.
CONCLUSION: Although the link between CKD and the risk of CVD is well established, it is noticeable that little is known about the pathophysiology of this disease. Only the detection and management of the traditional and CKD related risk factors will lead to an improvement in the CVD-related mortality in patients with CKD.
Keywords: Chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular risk factors.;