Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury results from inflammation and oxidative stress, among other factors. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, the Brazil nut (BN) might attenuate IR renal injury.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the intake of BN prevents or reduces IR kidney injury and inflammation, improving renal function and decreasing oxidative stress.
Male Wistar rats were distributed into six groups (N=6/group): SHAM (control), SHAM treated with 75 or 150 mg of BN, IR, and IR treated with 75 or 150 mg of BN. The IR procedure consisted of right nephrectomy and occlusion of the left renal artery with a non-traumatic vascular clamp for 30 min. BN was given daily and individually for 7 days before surgery (SHAM or IR) and maintained until animal sacrifice (48h after surgery). We evaluated the following parameters: plasma creatinine, urea, and phosphorus; proteinuria, urinary output, and creatinine clearance; plasmatic TBARS and TEAC; kidney expression of iNOS and nitrotyrosine, and macrophage influx.
Pre-treatment with 75 mg of BN attenuated IR-induced renal changes, with elevation of creatinine clearance and urinary output, reducing proteinuria, urea, and plasmatic phosphorus as well as reducing kidney expression of iNOS, nitrotyrosine, and macrophage influx.
Low intake of BN prior to IR-induced kidney injury improves renal function by inhibition of macrophage infiltration and oxidative stress.
Keywords: Isquemia; Reperfusão; Lesão renal aguda; Estresse oxidativo; Inflamação; Castanha-do-brasil; Ratos;
The aging of the population may lead to an increased prevalence of dementia and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their overlap.
We investigated the association between CKD and cognitive performance among Brazilian adults (35-74 years).
Baseline data analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adults (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort comprising 15,105 civil servants, was performed. Kidney function was defined by the CKD-Epi-estimated GRF and albumin creatinin ratio (ACR). Cognitive performance was measured across tests that included the word memory tests, verbal fluency tests and Trail Making Test B. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to investigate the association between CKD and global as well as test-specific lowered cognitive performance.
More than 90% of participants did not present CKD even considering reduced
GFR or increased ACR simultaneously. Lowered cognitive performance was
detected among 15.8% of the participants and mean values of GFR were
slightly higher among those with normal than with lowered cognitive
performance (86 ± 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 x 85 ± 16
These results suggest that cognitive performance remains preserved until renal function reaches significant worsening. Preventive measures to maintain renal function may contribute to the preservation of cognitive function.
Keywords: doenças renais; cognição; envelhecimento; doenças cardiovasculares;
The diagnosis and treatment of mineral and bone disorder of chronic kidney disease (CKD-MBD) is a challenge for nephrologists and health managers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, biochemical profile, and drugs associated with CKD-MBD.
Cross-sectional study between July and November 2013, with 1134 patients on dialysis. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory data were compared between groups based on levels of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (< 150, 150-300, 301-600, 601-1000, and > 1001 pg/mL).
The mean age was 57.3 ± 14.4 years. The prevalence of iPTH < 150
pg/mL was 23.4% and iPTH > 601 pg/mL was 27.1%. The comparison between
the groups showed that the level of iPTH decreased with increasing age.
Diabetic patients had a higher prevalence of iPTH < 150 pg/mL (27.6%).
Hyperphosphatemia (> 5.5 mg/dL) was observed in 35.8%. Calcium carbonate
was used by 50.5%, sevelamer by 14.7%, 40% of patients had used some form of
vitamin D and 3.5% used cinacalcet. Linear regression analysis showed a
significant negative association between iPTH, age, and
The prevalence of patients outside the target for iPTH was 50.5%. There was a high prevalence of hyperphosphatemia (35.8%), and the minority of patients were using active vitamin D, vitamin D analogs, selective vitamin D receptor activators, and cinacalcet. These data indicate the need for better compliance with clinical guidelines and public policies on the supply of drugs associated with CKD-MBD.
Keywords: Falência renal crônica; diálise renal; doenças ósseas;
Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (MS) are associated with low urinary pH and represent risk factors for nephrolithiasis, especially composed by uric acid. Acidogenic diets may also contribute to a reduction of urinary pH. Propensity for calcium oxalate precipitation has been shown to be higher with increasing features of the MS.
A retrospective evaluation of anthropometric and body composition parameters, MS criteria and the dietary patterns of overweight and obese calcium stone formers and their impact upon urinary pH and other lithogenic parameters was performed.
Data regarding anthropometry, body composition, serum and urinary parameters and 3-days dietary records were obtained from medical records of 102(34M/68F) calcium stone formers.
A negative correlation was found between urinary pH, waist circumference and serum uric acid levels (males). The endogenous production of organic acids (OA) was positively correlated with triglycerides levels and number of features of MS (males), and with glucose, uric acid and triglycerides serum levels, and number of features of MS (females). No significant correlations were detected between Net Acid Excretion (NAE) or Potential Renal Acid Load of the diet with any of the assessed parameters. A multivariate analysis showed a negative association between OA and urinary pH.
The endogenous production of OA and not an acidogenic diet were found to be independently predictive factors for lower urinary pH levels in calcium stone formers. Hypercalciuric and/or hyperuricosuric patients presented higher OA levels and lower levels of urinary pH.
Keywords: obesidade; obesidade abdominal; nefrolitíase; dietoterapia;
In contrast to organ transplantation, few studies correlate the monitoring of pp65 antigenemia with a diagnosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
To highlight the importance of CMV outside transplantation, we monitored pp65 antigenemia in a series of SLE patients.
From March 2015 to March 2016, SLE patients presenting kidney involvement, fever, and an unclear infection at hospital admission were monitored through pp65 antigenemia. The pp65 antigenemia assay, revealed by immunofluorescence, was correlated with clinical and laboratory findings.
We included 19 patients with a suspected unclear infection. A positivity for pp65 antigenemia was found in seven patients (36.8%). The mean age was 33.5 ± 11.2 years, 16 (84%) were females, and 16 (84%) were black. Lymphopenia, anemia, and higher scores of SLEDAI were significantly more common in pp65-positive patients. Five patients received antiviral therapy with ganciclovir. Although receiving specific CMV treatment, one patient died because of suspected CMV disease.
Pp65 antigenemia might be relevant in SLE patients, and studies with a greater number of patients are needed in order to establish sensitivity and specificity of pp65 antigenemia in different clinical contexts of SLE patients.
Keywords: Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico; Citomegalovírus; Viremia;
Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that stimulates the "browning" of the white adipose tissue, at least in mice. In chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, irisin regulation is not fully understood, and little attention has been given to the effects of exercise on irisin levels in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high intensity exercise on irisin plasma levels in CKD patients under hemodialysis (HD).
Fifteen HD patients (5 men, 44.4 ± 15.1 years old) were studied and served as their own controls. High intensity (single session) intradialytic strength exercises consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with four different movements in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on different days (exercise and non-exercise day) at exactly the same time (30 and 60 minutes after the start of dialysis session). Plasma irisin levels were measured by ELISA assay and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated.
Irisin plasma levels were significantly reduced in both exercise day (125.0
± 18.5 to 117.4 ± 15.0 ng/mL,
These data suggest that intense intradialytic strength exercise was unable to increase the circulating concentration of irisin in HD patients. Moreover, our data show that after one hour of dialysis session, irisin plasma levels may be reduced.
Keywords: Treinamento de Resistência; Diálise Renal; Hormonas;
BK virus (BKV) infection in renal transplant patients may cause kidney allograft dysfunction and graft loss. Accurate determination of BKV viral load is critical to prevent BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) but the cut-off that best predicts BKVAN remains controversial.
To evaluate the performance of a commercial and an in-house qPCR test for quantitative detection of BK virus in kidney transplant recipients.
This was a prospective study with kidney transplant recipients from two large university hospitals in Brazil. Patients were screened for BKV infection every 3 months in the first year post-transplant with a commercial and an in-house real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) test. BKVAN was confirmed based on histopathology. The area under the curve for plasma qPCR was determined from receiver operating characteristic analysis.
A total of 200 patients were enrolled. Fifty-eight percent were male, 19.5% had diabetes mellitus, and 82% had the kidney transplanted from a deceased donor. BKV viremia was detected in 32.5% and BKVAN was diagnosed in 8 patients (4%). BKVAN was associated with viremia of 4.1 log copies/mL, using a commercial kit. The cut-off for the in-house assay was 6.1 log copies/mL. The linearity between the commercial kit and the in-house assay was R2=0.83.
Our study shows that marked variability occurs in BKV viral load when different qPCR methodologies are used. The in-house qPCR assay proved clinically useful, a cheaper option in comparison to commercial qPCR kits. There is an urgent need to make BKV standards available to the international community.
Keywords: Transplante Renal; Viremia; Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase; Poliomavírus;
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in young infants. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific.
To describe clinical, demographic and laboratory features of UTI in infants ≤ 3 months old.
Cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 3 months old with UTI diagnosed in a pediatric emergency department, for the period 2010-2012. UTI was defined as ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen isolated from bladder catheterization. Paired urinalysis and urine culture from group culture-positive and group culture-negative were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of pyuria and nitrite tests in detecting UTI.
Of 519 urine cultures collected, UTI was diagnosed in 65 cases (prevalence:
12.5%); with male predominance (77%). The most common etiologies were
The male: female ratio for urinary tract infection was 3.3:1.
Keywords: infecções urinárias; urinálise; Escherichia coli; proteína C reativa; piúria; contagem de leucócitos;
Secondary hyperoxalemia is a multifactorial disease that affects several organs and tissues in patients with native or transplanted kidneys. Plasma oxalate may increase during renal failure because it is cleared from the body by the kidneys. However, there is scarce evidence about the association between glomerular filtration rate and plasma oxalate, especially in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
A case series focuses on the description of variations in clinical presentation. A pilot study was conducted using a cross-sectional analysis with 72 subjects. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and plasma oxalate levels were measured for all patients. Results: Median (IQR) GFR was 70.50 [39.0; 91.0] mL/min/1.73 m2. Plasma oxalate was < 5.0 µmol/L in all patients with a GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73m2. Among the 14 patients with severe CKD (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) only 4 patients showed a slightly increased plasma oxalate level (between 6 and 12 µmol/L).
In non-primary hyperoxaluria, plasma oxalate concentration increases when GFR < 30mL/min/1.73 m2 and, in our opinion, values greater than 5 µmol/L with a GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 are suggestive of primary hyperoxaluria. Further studies are necessary to confirm plasma oxalate increase in patients with low GFR levels (< 30mL/min/1.73 m2).
Keywords: Taxa de filtração glomerular; Hiperoxalúria; Doença renal crônica;
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease that affects multiple systems. While pathophysiologic mechanisms governing the development of scleroderma are relatively poorly understood, advances in our understanding of the complement system are clarifying the role of complement pathways in the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and scleroderma renal crisis. The abundant similarities in their presentation as well as the clinical course are raising the possibility of a common underlying pathogenesis. Recent reports are emphasizing that complement pathways appear to be the unifying link. This article reviews the role of complement system in the development of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and scleroderma renal crisis, and calls for heightened awareness to the development of thrombotic angiopathy in patients with scleroderma.
Keywords: Ativação de Complemento; Esclerodermia, Sistêmica; Lesão renal aguda;
Chronic renal patients are more susceptible to hospital complications and
infections such as urinary tract infections, peritonitis, surgery infections,
and bacteremia, which are often caused by
Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Choque Séptico; Boca;
Renal oncocytoma is an infrequently reported renal neoplasm, often asymptomatic, which usually behaves as a benign entity and is identified accidentally on radiological imaging. Transplant patients under long-term immunosuppressive drugs have a high prevalence of cancers, such as skin cancers, lymphoproliferative disorders, and renal carcinomas. We present a case report of an asymptomatic renal oncocytoma in a kidney transplant recipient presenting persistent hematuria. The features of computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are presented. This was the first time we used CEUS in a transplant kidney recipient presenting a renal mass, allowing the real-time visualization of contrast-enhancement patterns during all vascular phases for the differential diagnosis of renal tumors. Although the pattern of intense vascularization could mislead to an early judgment as a malignant lesion, it could help to exclude other renal lesions without inducing nephrotoxicity.
Keywords: Adenoma oxifílico; ultrassonografia; neoplasias renais; microbolhas;
Posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was first described by Hinchey in 1996. The syndrome is characterized by altered level of consciousness, headache, visual changes, and seizures associated with a vasogenic edema of the white matter that occurs predominantly in the occipital and parietal lobes. Imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) and especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) support the diagnosis.
We report a case of a 48-year-old female patient who underwent a deceased donor kidney transplant and received tacrolimus as a part of the immunosuppressive regimen. Five weeks after transplantation she was admitted to the emergency due to sudden onset of confusion, disorientation, visual disturbances, and major headache. PRES was suspected and the diagnosis confirmed by brain MRI. Tacrolimus was withdrawn and rapid improvement of the neurological signs occurred leading to the conclusion that this drug triggered the syndrome.
PRES is an unusual complication after organ transplantation and should be considered in the appropriate clinical setting. Physicians must be aware of this condition in order to provide early detection and appropriate treatment since delay in removing the cause may lead to permanent sequelae.
Keywords: Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior Reversível; Transplante de Rim; Tacrolimus;
Histoplasmosis is a fungus infection that mainly affects immunosuppressed patients. The authors present a case of a kidney transplant recipient who developed sepsis-like histoplasmosis, na atypical but severe manifestation of the disease. The fungus was found in blood and in a skin biopsy, and the treatment with liposomal amphotericin resulted in hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: transplante de rim; imunossupressão; sepse; infecções oportunistas;